SC2 Beginners Guide- From GamerHell

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  1. Hades Lord of the Dead

    ======================================================================
    BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO STARCRAFT2 MULTIPLAYER

    Revision: 1.0
    Author: Shockwave.xpow
    Email: shockwave.xpow@gmail.com
    Copyright: (c) 2010 shockwave.xpow - All rights reserved
    ======================================================================


    ======================================================================
    0. LEGAL INFORMATION CH0
    ======================================================================

    All trademarks and copyrights contained in this document are owned by
    their respective trademark and copyright holders. This document is
    protected by copyright law and international treaties. This may be
    not be reproduced under any circumstances except for personal, private
    use. It may not be placed on any web site or otherwise distributed
    publicly without advance written permission. Use of this guide on any
    other web site or as a part of any public display is strictly
    prohibited, and a violation of copyright.

    If you wish to use any or all of ths information, you must contact me
    via and request permission. Permission may not necessarily be
    granted, and non-response by me does not grant permission.


    ======================================================================
    TOC. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHT
    ======================================================================
    0. LEGAL INFORMATION CH0

    TOC. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHT

    I. INTRODUCTION CH1
    A. ABOUT THE AUTHOR CH1_A
    B. WHAT TO EXPECT CH1_B

    II. OVERVIEW CH2

    III. CORE PRINCIPLES CH3
    A. THE BIG FIVE CH3_A
    B. HOTKEYS AND CONTROL GROUPS CH3_B
    C. SUMMARY CH3_C

    IV. STARCRAFT2 BASICS CH4
    A. ECONOMY CH4_A
    B. TERRAIN CH4_B
    C. CORE GAMEPLAY CH4_C
    D. INTERFACE CH4_D

    V. RACES CH5
    A. TERRAN CH5_A
    B. ZERG CH5_B
    C. PROTOSS CH5_C

    VI. MULTIPLAYER EXECUTION CH6
    A. THE BIG FIVE PATH OF LEARNING CH6_A

    VII. SPECIFIC MULTIPLAYER TIPS CH7
    A. GENERAL CH7_A
    B. MAP FEATURES CH7_B
    C. DEALING WITH RUSHES CH7_C
    D. ALLIED GAMES CH7_D

    VIII. RESOURCES CH8

    IX. BONUS: ORDAN PORTRAIT CH9
    IXA. SETUP CH9_A
    IXB. PLAY CH9_B

    ======================================================================
    I. INTRODUCTION CH1
    ======================================================================

    Welcome to Shockwave's Starcraft2 ("SC2") faq! This guide covers
    basics of SC2 and is primarily geared towards players who (1) want to
    succeed in multiplayer (2) have some experience with SC1. This guide
    focuses on broad SC2/RTS principles, since SC2 will inevitably
    experience balance and gameplay patches. Bearing that in mind, I will
    focus more on general principles that are less likely to go obsolete,
    and then point you to sites and forums that can give current
    information. Although this is named a beginner's guide, this is
    useful for players across various skill levels. I cover both very
    basic starting skills, as well as advanced concepts.

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IA. ABOUT THE AUTHOR CH1_A
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    I was Starcraft1's b.net forum MVP and played competitively
    particularly during early Starcraft1 ladder seasons. I am responsible
    for the widely-referenced SC1 Beginner's Guide
    (http://forums.battle.net/thread.html?topicId=12454627968&sid=3000).

    I was never a top player but I am very familiar with strats and
    fundamentals at all levels. I was responsible for uncovering several
    key mechanics in SC1 such as the sprite limit bug. I participated in
    Starcraft2 beta since its early inception and was a top diamond player
    during various phases.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IB. WHAT TO EXPECT CH1_B
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Outright, I need to start by giving a big caveat: This guide will not
    make you win all your games as you start out with Starcraft2 for the
    first time. You can read and digest all the concepts here, watch
    every Starcraft2 tutorial online, etc., but you will still lose a LOT
    of games as you start out, regardless if you were a top pro player in
    SC1. This guide will help you learn as quickly as possible, but for
    starters, you will need to hop in with low win expectations and eat a
    lot of losses while you learn. This can be rather humbling if you
    were a top SC1 player since you will lose to players ordinarily much
    worse than you just because they started playing a bit before you did.
    The solution is to read through the principles here, jump online, play
    your games and get beaten and put into one of the lower leagues,
    swallow your losses, and practice. After a few dozen games, you'll be
    back up to speed and rising through the ranks quickly just like in
    your old SC1 days.



    ======================================================================
    II. OVERVIEW CH2
    ======================================================================

    Most of you reading this document are probably former Starcraft1
    ("SC1") / Brood War ("BW") players, so a lot of this guide will assume
    a basic understanding of SC/RTS mechanics. I will start with a
    general overview of the differences between SC1 and SC2.

    Two common questions from SC1 players are: (1) Is SC2 similar to SC1?
    (2) Am I going to lose games frequently as I start out playing SC2?
    The answer to both questions is "Yes", but hopefully this guide will
    help you start winning shortly. If you're a SC1 player, here are some
    fundamental things to expect when getting into SC2:

    1. STARCRAFT2 IS NOT RADICALLY DIFFERENT THAN STARCRAFT1

    In terms of the overall feel of the gameplay, SC2 is closer to an
    expansion than an entirely new game. If you can think back to how you
    felt when you first started playing BW in terms of familiarity with
    the game but unfamiliarity with strategy and interface improvements,
    that's how you'll feel when starting off in SC2. If you liked SC1,
    you'll like SC2. If you did well in SC1, you will do well in SC2 and
    should be able to pickup strategy fairly quickly.

    2. STARCRAFT2'S INTERFACE IS MUCH IMPROVED OVER STARCRAFT1

    Just about everything you dreamed of is in SC2: unlimited sized
    control groups, rally directly to minerals, ability to hotkey multiple
    buildings and types, etc. (more on this later). The interface
    improvements make economy/base management a lot more pleasant such
    that you can spend more time focusing on battles and micro.

    * E.G. You can now use shift queueing to tell a siege tank to unsiege,
    move to another location, and siege.

    * E.G. You can assign multiple barraks to a control group so that you
    can queue up a bunch of marines easily.

    3. STARCRAFT2 UNITS ARE DIFFERENT THAN STARCRAFT1

    Don't expect to be able to use identical strategy in SC2 that you did
    in SC1 (SC1 carrier rushers take note). However, if you had a good
    handle on strategy in SC1, you'll find that you can translate that
    easily into SC2; you'll just be building different unit compositions.
    At the start, getting used to how to use the various units
    strategically is challenging, but you'll quickly adjust to being
    familiar with the new unit combinations.

    * E.G. Carriers are decent units but carrier rushing is not nearly as
    powerful and is not a common strategy.

    * E.G. Hydras are no longer stocky all-purpose units, they are frail
    and die quickly without support.

    4. STARCRAFT2 WILL MATCH YOU WITH PLAYERS AT YOUR SKILL LEVEL

    In SC1, outside of ladder, you would often be put into lopsided games
    because player records are not an indication of skill. E.G. Even if
    you created a "noobs only" game, it was likely that you'd end up
    against someone far better than you who is just playing you to pad his
    record. By contrast, in SC2, all games factor into your ranking, and
    the matching system attempts to place you against similarly skilled
    players. It might seem scary that every game "counts", but overall
    this sytem allows you to settle into a comfortable zone where your
    games are more likely to be challenging without being overwhelming.
    Of course, as you get better, your rank will improve and you'll hit
    better players, and likewise if you started on a lucky streak then you
    will not be doomed to keep playing against crazy platinum-level
    opponents; the matching system will bump you down to an appropriate
    level.

    The ranking system also awards you fairly for wins and losses
    depending on skill discrepancies. If you are a bronze level player
    and lose against a diamond player, you will be penalized barely any
    points, and thus those games will be more like free practice and an
    opportunity to learn.

    5. STARCRAFT2 HAS NO CHAT ROOMS

    The decision not to use public chat rooms has generated much
    controversy. Suffice it to say, in SC2 you will only be able to
    network with other players by adding them as friends. You can add a
    friend using your friend's registered email address, or their SC
    gameID (each SC2 account has a unique ID which is displayed when they
    login). So, for connecting with friends, just ask them for the email
    that they used to register for SC2, or if they've logged in already
    then ask them for their gamerID.


    ======================================================================
    III. CORE PRINCIPLES CH3
    ======================================================================

    Winning a game in SC is dependent upon many different factors.
    Beginner players often focus on wanting to know what units to build
    and what counters what; e.g. a typical beginner question is "My
    opponent made a bunch of tanks and creamed me, what am I supposed to
    build to counter this?" or "What constitutes a good attack force for
    Terran? How many thors and tanks should I build?" Unfortunately,
    these are actually the wrong things to focus on as a beginning player.
    While unit composition and proper counters are important for winning
    games, it is far more important to focus on fundamentals first versus
    specific strategies. The following section contains the most
    important concepts to master in order to excel in Starcraft2. Those
    are: basic economy and production management, and hotkey usage.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IIIA. THE BIG FIVE CH3_A
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    The Big Five is my attempt to reduce SC1/2 learning into focusing on
    the most important issues that will help improve your gameplay. You
    can read my original Big Five guide in my SC1 doc
    (http://www.gamefaqs.com/pc/25418-starcraft/faqs/29831), but I'll also
    include it here with some improvements.
    Most of these guidelines are focused to buliding a solid economy and
    using it; this (not unit composition) is the key to winning games at
    most skill levels. Although technically you win games by killing your
    opponent's units, your ability to kill your opponent usually depends
    on how many units you have, which then depends on how strong your
    economy is. If you have twice as many bases as your opponent, then
    you will almost certainly win due to having a superior economy
    (i.e. "win the resource war").

    1. ALWAYS BE BUILDING WORKERS

    You need lots of probes/SCVs/drones ("workers") for each base. The
    general rule of thumb is to never stop building them. You can never
    have enough peons.

    Zerg's paradigm is a bit different, but for Protoss/Terran, your
    Nexus/CC ("town hall") should always be building a worker. It can be
    a bit cumbersome to remember to build workers, so if you have to,
    queue up a few workers so that they automatically build one after
    another. Those workers should always be put to use, of course - you
    can rally them straight to minerals so that they automatically start
    mining/gathering once built (just select your town hall and
    right-click on a mineral patch).

    * E.G. An easy way to continually build workers is to put your town
    hall into a control group (I use "2"). With Protoss an example,
    when you're in the middle of a battle, you can just hit "2eee" to
    start a few more probes from your Nexus. You can in fact hotkey
    multiple Nexuses to build peons from all of them.

    2. BUILD SUPPLY IN ADVANCE SO YOU ARE NOT EVER WAITING ON SUPPLY

    Always build depots/pylons/overlords ("supply") early enough in
    advance so that you're not waiting on supply to finish ("supply
    blocked") in order to build more units. You should try to never get
    the "You must construct additional pylons"-type supply block messages.

    * E.G. Generally in early game, you'll want to start building your
    next supply when your supply is 3 under its limit. In later game,
    you'll want to build supply much earlier or in multiples.

    3. KEEP YOUR RESOURCES AS CLOSE TO ZERO AS POSSIBLE

    Spend minerals/gas ("resources") that you earn as fast as you can.
    Don't let resources pile up (this is called "floating" in some
    RTS-speak), because resources in the bank are doing nothing for you --
    those resources could have been more zealots, an expansion, etc.

    * E.G. Once you have a gateway, make sure it's making zealots whenever
    you have enough resources to spare, and if your gateway is building a
    zealot and you have even more resources then build a 2nd gateway (or
    tech, expand, etc.). It's less important at beginner level what you
    do with your resources just as long as you spend them on something.
    Resources tend to pile up in particular while you're executing a
    battle (e.g. controlling your marines as they take out some zergling),
    so get used to the habit of reminding yourself to build unit even in
    the middle of battles. SC2's interface makes this easy; you don't
    need amazing APM (i.e. keyboard/mouse speed) but rather just need to
    reemember to build at all times. Watch your replays and keep an eye
    on your resources to see where you tend to fall behind.

    A related rule to this is: Don't queue a lot of unts in your
    production buildings just to keep your resources close to zero. In
    other words, do not queue up 5 battlecruisers in a single starport.
    The reason is that when you queue units, this ties up your available
    resources even though you're only actively building the first unit in
    the queue. If you have enough resources to queue up 5 battlecruisers
    in a single starport, then you should instead build 2 more starports
    so that you can be building those 5 battlecruisers in parallel. When
    watching your replays, check that your production buildings are not
    idle (i.e. are always building something), and do not generally have
    more than 2 units queued up at any time.

    4. AVOID BUILDING A LOT OF STATIC DEFENSE

    A standard beginner trend is to build tons of
    cannons/bunkers/turrets/spines/spores ("static defense";
    i.e. buildings that attack) in your base, because static defense keeps
    you safe from attack. However, because static defenses are defensive
    and in general don't move, they can't help you attack, which means
    that you automatically present less of an offensive threat to your
    opponent. If you're playing against the computer, it'll happily send
    units at your wall of cannons and get those units killed, so this
    seems effective. But when playing against a human, your opponent will
    realize that you have little to attack him with since you've been
    spending money on defense ("turtling"), and will take over the rest of
    the map and starve you out. This means that you may not lose early in
    the game, but you will still lose because you've lost the resource
    war.

    * E.G. Do not incorporate a forge into your early build in order to
    make cannons. In fact, pretending that cannons don't exist and
    instead learning to build units will help your gameplay in the long
    run if you're a beginner.

    * E.G. Be careful even about building bunkers. Yes, you can salvage
    them for a full refund, but while you have bunkers, that's resources
    that's tied up that you could have used to make more barraks, start
    an earlier factory, etc.

    5. SCOUT EARLY AND OFTEN

    Send a worker out to your opponent's base fairly early in the game,
    e.g. usually when you are around 8-12 supply (you scout with a worker
    because around 8-12 supply, you won't have other units available).
    Once your worker is in your opponent's base, keep it alive as long as
    possible by having it continue to move around the base.

    Scouting is vital for getting an idea on what strategy your opponent
    is adopting, since your own strategy is typically defined by what your
    opponent is doing. It is also not just a one-time event -- later,
    you'll want to send an observer or overlord or other expendable unit
    into your opponent's base to see what he's up to, or try sending
    another worker in, etc. Even if you're not experienced enough yet to
    how exactly to respond to what you see when you scout, you will still
    benefit from what you see.

    * E.G. I scout with a probe in early game and see that my opponent is
    building a forge. This means he is probably making cannons. I will
    keep my probe alive long enough to see whether he starts warping in
    cannons after his forge is done. If so, then I know he will be
    unable to attack me early on, so I can expand early. I should then
    scout about a minute afterward to see if he is teching quickly
    (e.g. if I see a stargate and fleet beacon, I know he is making
    carriers so I need to make some anti-air).


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IIIB. HOTKEYS AND CONTROL GROUPS CH3_B
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Learning how to best use your keyboard and mouse when playing SC2 is
    the other big basic principle for success. Beginner player are often
    frustrated by the wealth of options and actions in SC2, and some of
    you may just not be that fast with your fingers. Two tricks can help
    you greatly with managing SC2 even if you are not lightning fast with
    your fingers. These are keyboard shortcuts and control groups
    (collectively known as "hotkey usage").

    Keyboard shortcuts and control groups use are critical to effective
    play in SC2. They are on par in importance to the Big Five but
    require more explanation so I've moved them to a separate section.
    There is no getting around using hotkeys -- you cannot become an
    effective SC2 player without good use of hotkeys. As painful and
    nonintuitive as this may be, you must learn this section.

    1. KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

    If you have your Nexus selected, you can either click the build probe
    action button icon in the lower right corner, or hit "E" to build a
    probe. "E" is thus the keyboard shortcut (sometimes called the
    "hotkey") for building a probe. Why care about keyboard shortcuts?
    Because hitting "E" is much faster than mousing over to the action
    button, and thus hotkey usage presents a clear advantage for how
    quickly you can execute actions. You should in general never be
    clicking on action buttons since every action has a hotkey.

    Keyboard shortcuts takes a bit of practice and getting used to but it
    is critical for effective play because in a combat situation you will
    not often have time to mouseover psi storm to select the spell, and in
    general want to minimize unnecessary mouse movement.

    There is a simple way to train yourself to use keyboard shortcuts.
    Whenever you don't know the keyboard shortcut to an action, mouse over
    to the action button icon so that you can see the keyboard shortcut,
    and then hit the keyboard shortcut (i.e. do not use your mouse to
    select the action). For example, if I have my Nexus selected and
    forget the shortcut to build a probe, I'll mouse over the probe action
    button icon, see the "Build probe [E]" tooltip, and then I will hit
    "E" to build a probe. If I accidentally press my mouse buton on the
    probe action button icon, I will hit ESCAPE to cancel that action and
    then hit "E". This may seem somewhat cumbersome, but after doing this
    just a few times, you'll be able to build probes using "E" without
    giving it any thought; in other words, you'll build up muscle memory
    to perform keyboard shortcuts automatically.

    2. CONTROL GROUPS

    Control groups allow you to assign buildings or units to a number key
    (i.e. 0-9). This is done by selecting something, holding down CTRL,
    and presing any number key. From there on, whenever you press that
    number key, whatever you had assigned to that key will be selected
    again. Control group use is critical for managing units and
    production throughout SC2; for example, in late game if you have 10
    stargates, you do not want to have to manually go back to your base,
    click on each stargate, and build a carrier; if you the stargates
    grouped to 1, you could just hit "1ccccccc" to build a bunch of
    carriers without taking your eyes off of what you are doing at the
    time.

    How you assign control groups is up to you. However, be sure that you
    at least put all your town halls in one control group, and at least
    some of your production facilities in another. Additionally, bear in
    mind that 2-5 are the easiest control group numbers to use (since they
    are easy to reach with your left hand), so generally favor assigning
    those first. My scheme is as follows when using Terran:

    1 - Home base CC (so I can hit "11" to quickly get back to my main base).
    2 - Main combat ground group (marines, marauders, tanks, etc.).
    5 - Main combat air group (vikings, banshees, etc.).
    6 - All CCs (so during the middle of battle, I can hit "2ssss" to make
    workers for all my bases).
    7 - All my barraks, factories, starports (so I can build new units at any
    time).
    0 - Temporary assignment (e.g. my first SCV scout, buildings that are
    actively researching upgrades).

    Starcraft2 contains many conveniences when using control groups,
    particularly for selections of mixed units and buildings. If you have
    barraks, factories, and starports in one group, for example, you can
    use TAB to cycle between them, so that you can build some marines with
    "a", hit tab and build some siege tanks, hit tab again and build some
    vikings, etc. Additionally, if you have multiple of the same
    building, then new units are queued up smartly -- e.g. if you have 3
    barraks selected and hit "a" 3 times, then 1 marine will be queued in
    each barraks (versus 3 in the first).

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IIIC. SUMMARY CH3_C
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    The Big Five and hotkey usage comprises most of what you actually need
    to know to both start off SC2 and get really good at the game. I
    would recommen taking some time to master those principles above
    before moving on to getting distracted by these next sections which go
    into more specific strategy and information. Having said that, the
    reality is that none of you are going to stop and just practice the
    Big Five and then read the rest of this later, so my caution is that
    you don't lose sight of the Big Five and hotkeys while reading the
    rest of this. In the end, mastering those will help you with your
    beginning multiplayer a lot more than any of this information below.



    ======================================================================
    IV. STARCRAFT2 BASICS CH4
    ======================================================================

    This section will cover some of the major SC2 principles. This is
    mostly presented as differences between SC1 and SC2 although even if
    you didn't play SC1, you should be able to understand the concepts
    here.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IVA. ECONOMY CH4_A
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    1. GAS IS KING

    The mechanism of gas collection has changed from SC1 to SC2. (1) Your
    base now starts with two geysers instead of one (2)
    Assimilator/refinary/extractor ("gas") costs less to build, and (3)
    Each gas harvests at half the rate compared to SC1 (i.e. 4 gas per
    worker trip instead of 8).

    Gas is the scarce resource in SC2, largely because minerals mine more
    effectively than in SC1 (more on this later). It is thus not unusual
    to be in a situation where you have more minerals than you know what
    to do with, and not enough gas. Most opening builds start with just
    taking one of your geyser; getting both is seen as a fairly aggressive
    tech move. The optimal number of workers on gas is 3 (versus 4 in
    SC1). (For some gas positions, 4 workers will give you marginally
    more yield, but it's typically so small that you do not need to commit
    the 4th worker.) The other major gas behavior change is that gas
    cannot be mined once it's depleted.

    * E.G. It's typical to get one geyser very early, shortly after you
    start your first barraks/pool/gateway, since gas costs less than in
    SC1. There are a few rare builds that delay first gas, but unless
    you really have good reason, get 1 and only 1 gas early. Once your
    gas finishes, put 3 workers on it immediately.

    2. YOU ONLY NEED 2 WORKERS PER MINERAL PATCH

    Because unit pathing is much better in SC2 than SC1, workers harvest
    minerals more efficiently (i.e. they are smarter about moving to
    patches and selecting empty patches). You no longer need 3 probes per
    mineral patch; the optimal number is 2 per patch. You will still see
    gains up to around 2.5 workers/patch, but not much. You may then
    think that you should not keep building workers because you saturate
    at fewer. While in advanced strategy you will want to keep this in
    mind, when in doubt just build more workers. This is because you tend
    to expand faster (more on this later) and each time you expand, you
    will want to transfer some workers ("Maynard", that's a verb) over to
    the new expansion.

    * E.G. For a typical 8-mineral base, full saturation on gas and
    minerals is 16 on minerals and 6 on gas, i.e. 22 workers. This is a
    lot lower than SC1 numbers. You should still constantly pump
    workers, since those can be transferred to expansions.

    * E.G. Because pathing is smarter, you no longer need to manually
    separate your initial workers when assigning them to patches at game
    start. Instead, just click on a patch and the workers will split
    optimally on their own.

    3. ALL RACES HAVE WAYS TO BOOST RESOURCE COLLECTION

    It is important that you are familiar with each races' ability to
    speed up the rate of harvesting resources. More will be mentioned
    about this in the race-specific sections, but you are at a
    disadvantage if you don't utilize these. Protoss has chronoboost from
    the Nexus (i.e. build probes faster), Terran has MULEs from the
    Orbital Command (i.e. harvest minerals faster), Zerg has Spawn Larva
    from the Queen (i.e. generate more larvae to make drones faster). Do
    not start playing a race until you're aware of that race's resource
    collection trick, or you'll be handicapping yourself.

    4. EXPANSIONS ARE MADE SOONER

    One-base play in SC1 was viable even past early-mid game since it took
    a while for the first base to become saturated with workers. Since
    resource collection in SC2 is faster because workers mine more
    efficiently, expansions also tend to come much faster. Prolonged
    one-base play is generally an "all-in" where if you do not kill your
    opponent early, you will almost certainly die from being
    out-resourced. The first expansion, notably, is typically more
    valuable for its additional gas than minerals, given the rule#1: "gas
    is king".

    Knowing when to expand is always a tricky issue since it depends on
    what your opponent is done and how well your early attacks are
    executed; the easiest way to learn the timing is to watch some
    replays, mirror the build orders, and then make your own adjustments.
    Regardless of whether you learn particular build orders, however, just
    bear in mind that you should generally start your first expansion much
    earlier than in SC1.

    * E.G. It's common for Terran to start their first expansion at around
    25 supply, which seems super early for SC1 players. Note that
    although the expansion costs you 400 minerals, it gives you 10
    supply (i.e. slightly more than a supply depot which costs 100
    minerals), a MULE shortly aferward if you build an orbital supply,
    and a huge resource income spike once you transfer some SCVs from
    your main to the expansion. Thus, expansions pay for themselves
    very quickly, cost less than face value (since they give supply) and
    thus are not as risky as they may seem.

    5. HIGH-YIELD MINERALS ARE IMPORTANT BUT NOT CRITICAL

    Most maps will have at least one expansion that has gold mineral
    patches. These give greater yield than normal minerals and
    controlling such expansions for any length of time covers an
    advantage. Note that there is no such thing as high yield gas, so gas
    at these expansions is the same as in normal bases. These expansions
    are often centrally located, blocked off by rocks, or otherwise
    inconvenient. Note that controlling high yield doesn't guarantee
    victory, due to rule #1: "gas is king".

    The way to think of high yield minerals is that they're good to take
    when you think you can defend them, but their presence does not change
    strategy fundamentally. In other words, if you're new to SC2, don't
    feel like you need to learn particular strategies for securing high
    yield expansions early, or that you'll lose if your opponent is able
    to grab one. If it's too much to think about, just pretend they don't
    exist, and you'll still do fine.

    * E.G. Take a high yield expansion if it's convenient for you. Don't
    feel pressured that you have to expand there immediately, or that
    your opponent is going to beat you early by exploiting this. Do
    make sure you scout the high yield expansions so you can attack the
    expansion or at least force your opponent to overcommit to its
    defenses.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IVB. TERRAIN CH4_B
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    1. DESTRUCTIBLE ROCKS

    Many maps have destructible rocks that form a temporary wall to bases.
    These take some effort to destroy because they are high health and
    armored, but they cannot be repaired nor reconstructed afterward.
    Almost all balanced maps have just one entrance ("choke") into the
    base, but the destroying the rocks can create another. Be sure to
    build a pylon or put a unit near your destructible rocks so that you
    can see if your opponent is trying to break through. Some maps hide
    visibility to the rocks through bushes (more on brushes later), so be
    sure to have a unit or structure that spots past the bushes for you.

    * E.G. Since Terran often relies on walling off their choke with
    buildings, they are very vulnerable to being backdoored if their
    rocks are taken out. Although the rocks take a lot of effort to
    kill, even sending some units at Terran's rocks is usually enough to
    scare him into devoting considerable resources to defending against
    the threat of those rocks going down. If you're playing against
    Terran and aren't actively attacking him, send some units to kill
    the rocks.

    2. SOME UNITS CAN IGNORE CLIFFS

    A few units are able to walk up and down cliffs, so do not rely too
    much on just defending your choke. These units are similar to air
    units in terms of mobility since they effectively ignore most terrain.
    When you play on newbie versions of maps (which use rocks to block off
    bases from early rushes) during practice rounds, don't be surprised if
    your opponents use reapers or colossus to attack you sooner than
    expected.

    * E.G. As a newer player, you are likely to die a few times to
    cliff-traversing units such as reapers and colossus until you get
    the hang of this, but overally it is not a radical change.

    3. XEL'NAGA WATCH TOWERS GIVE SIGHT

    Most maps have at least a couple of neutral watch towers which are
    owned whenever a ground (i.e. not air) unit stands near them. These
    towers then give a very large sight range. The towers are generally
    situated in strategic positions to cover standard attack paths.
    Controlling these towers is very important as they give warning of
    attacks and sometimes can even see expansions, so they are somewhat
    like having a legal map hack. Do not easily yield the towers to your
    opponent; fight over them if you have to.

    4. HIGH GROUND REQUIRES SIGHT

    In SC1, you could attack units on high ground with a certain miss rate
    (i.e. you have a 25% chance that your attack will miss). In SC2, you
    will never miss units on high grounds so there is no longer this
    penalty, but you must have sight on the high ground to attack it.
    Units on high ground will still appear to you when they attack, just
    like in SC1, but you will not be able to counterattack. Sighting up
    high ground involves having a unit at that elevation, or using a
    floating building or air unit as a spotter.

    5. SOME TERRAIN OBSTRUCTS SIGHT

    Weeds, billowing smoke, etc. ("brush") will obstruct sight such that
    if you are one side of the brush, you will not see units on the other
    side. This is useful for hiding units or giving melee units an
    advantage over ranged opponents. * E.G. Hide melee units near brush
    so that you can ambush ranged units walking by the other side.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IVC. CORE GAMEPLAY CH4_C
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    1. STATIC DEFENSE IS FRAIL

    In SC1, static defense was fairly robust, such that building static
    defense would assure that your opponent would have to take
    moderate/heavy losses to break through. Static defense in SC2 is in
    general far less effective, as there are units that can take down
    defenses pretty easily without taking much if any losses. You cannot
    count on cannons and spines to hold off a concerted attack.

    * E.G. Don't be surprised if you make a cannon in early game and start
    teching thinking you're safe, then a few marauders run up and
    destroy your cannons early while taking minimal losses.

    2. SC2 USES A NEW DAMAGE MECHANIC

    SC1 had concussive and explosive damage, each of which did variable
    damage to units depending on the target unit's size. The general
    paradigm was that units would do decent damage against targets they
    are meant to attack (e.g. firebats against zealots), and poor damage
    against other units (e.g. firebats against tanks). In SC2, most units
    do decent damage against everything, but totally obliterate units they
    are intended to attack. This is a "hard counter" (versus SC1's "soft
    counter") system, and it means that building generic armies is not as
    effective as in SC1 because it will get destroyed by an opposing army
    that is made to counter it. There are no longer generic damage types;
    instead, some units will contain a flat bonus against certain armor
    types. Pay close attention to these because they will determine what
    units counter what. I realize this makes some parts of the Big Five
    (i.e. it doesn't matter what you build as long as you're building
    something) trickier, and it's a bit scary thinking about starting up
    SC2 where you'll die if you build the wrong units, but this is easily
    alleviated by just learning some good unit compositions
    (e.g. marine/marauder/tank) which will do fine up until the highest
    levels.

    Also note that Protoss shields no longer take full damage from
    everything; instead, they follow the same rules and armor type as
    their unit.

    * E.G. Banelings kill marines, which kill zerglings, which kill
    marauders, which kill banelings. This is an example of the counter
    system.

    3. BATTLES LAST SHORTER

    Part of the consequence of #2 is that battles are much more brief than
    in SC1, typically. Although gamespeed is just about the same, units
    just kill each other and die faster than ever. Micro (controlling
    individual units to great effect, such as using spellcasters or
    retreating specific units that are being attacked) is important, but
    macro (overwhelming your opponent with a lot of units or superior
    economy) starts playing a larger role. Also, melee units have an
    easier time chasing after retreating units (e.g. in SC1 you could run
    your marine from zergling fairly effectively, whereas in SC2 your
    marine will get attacked more frequently while retreating), which
    sometimes makes retreat very punishing. There is really nothing you
    can "do" to compensate for this change in gamepace except to be aware
    of it and to make sure you don't let your macro suffer.

    4. MOBILITY IS MUCH IMPROVED

    In SC1, certain unit combinations were quite immobile. SC2 is full of
    better ways to get around the map, which adds more dynamics and faster
    pacing to the game. Become comfortable with each race's mobility
    tricks or you'll be caught off guard.

    * E.G. Zerg have nydus worms (you'll lose at least a few games by this
    before you know what's going on), Protoss has warp gates to allow
    them to build units at forward pylons, Terran tends to have more
    dropships ("medivacs") since those double as healing for infantry.

    5. WORKERS ARE TREATED AS HIGH PRIORITY TARGETS

    In SC1, workers were always targetted last if other military units
    were around; i.e. if you had any military unit nearby, the attacking
    units would ignore your workers and try to kill the military unit
    first. You could exploit this in many interesting ways, such as
    attacking with SCVS+marines against zealots since the zealots would
    ignore the SCVs and walk around them to get to the marines.

    In SC2, workers are treated similar to any other attacking melee unit
    and will be targetted. This means that if something breaks into your
    worker line, it is typically a good idea to run your workers instead
    of using them to attack.

    * E.G. You'll often have to run your workers if a unit gets into the
    mineral line. In SC1, suppose a zealot got into your Terran base --
    you could just build a marine and have your workers attack the
    zealot and the zealot would get stuck trying to reach your marine.
    In SC2, the zealot will happily cut through your workers and ignore
    the marine.

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IVD. UNITS AND UNIT BEHAVIOR CH4_D
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    1. ENERGY MAXES OUT AT 200

    Energy-using units ("spellcasters") all have a maximum of 200 energy
    and cannot be upgraded to 250 energy. Instead of an upgrade that
    increases the total energy, most energy units have an upgrade that
    increases their starting energy. This is arguably more useful because
    it makes spellcasters more immediately able to cast spells after being
    built.

    * E.G. If you upgrade templar energy, they will build with 75 energy,
    which means that they can immediately psi storm. Using warpgates,
    you can quickly create a templar anywhere near a pylon, so in the
    middle of being attacked, you can warp in a templar and storm
    immediately.

    2. BUILDINGS ARE IMPASSIBLE ON ALL SIDES

    In SC1, some buildings are smaller (or more "porous") than others even
    if they take up the same amount of space. For example, if you put a
    depot next to a barraks, then units would be able to fit through the
    space between the two buildings if they were arranged horizontally but
    not if they were arranged vertically.

    In SC2, all buildings fully take up the grid, so two buildings next to
    each other will always prevent units from going inbetween. This makes
    walling in much easier and strategic. Also, basic units are now the
    same size -- if a zealot can't fit through a crack, then neither can
    zergling.

    * E.G. As Terran, you'll almost always want to wall off the choke to
    your base so that units cannot get into your base without destroying
    part of your wall. Two depots, a rax, and the rax's add-on will
    seal the wall as long as those are all flush, regardless of
    orientation.

    3. UPGRADES RESEARCH MUCH FASTER

    In SC1, if you invested in weapons/armor upgrades, you had to wait a
    long time before those actually finished researching. If you lagged
    behind on upgrades compared to your opponent, it was really difficult
    to catch up. In SC2, upgrades finish researching a lot faster, which
    means they are very much worth investing in.

    4. MOST UNITS DO FRIENDLY SPLASH

    Most units that have a splash or area of effect ("AoE") attack will
    not damage friendly units. One notable exception is siege tanks.
    Additionally, units that do friendly splash will not injure teammates'
    units.

    * E.G. In SC1, your firebats' splash would hurt an ally's units; in
    SC2, hellions' flame will not hurt an ally's units.

    5. AIR UNITS ARE VERTICALLY OFFSET

    In SC1, if you wanted to psi storm an air unit, you just clicked on
    the unit. Since SC2 does not use a top-down view, though, you will
    instead have to click slightly below the unit (a vertical line is
    drawn from the unit to its actual spot on the ground). This takes a
    while to get used to, and in the meantime you may miss air units when
    using area of effect ("AoE") spells such as psi storm and EMP.

    Also note that most AoE spells cannot be targetted on a unit, they
    must be cast onto the ground.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IVD. INTERFACE CH4_D
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    1. UNITS WILL SMART CAST

    In SC1, if you have 12 battlecruisers ("BCs") and tell them to yamato
    one target, all 12 BCs will waste their yamato on that target. In
    SC2, the same command will cause only one BC to actually cast yamato.
    Thus, if you have 12 BCs against 12 carriers, you can press "Y", hold
    down shift, click on each carrier twice, and that will cause all your
    BCs (that have enough energy) to divide up so that each carrier is
    yammo'd twice.

    2. WORKERS CAN RALLY TO MINERALS

    If you rally your town hall to minerals or gas, workers produced will
    automatically start mining. You can even rally workers to a partially
    building gas, and the workers will start mining once the gas finishes
    building. This is a huge improvement because it makes economy
    management a lot easier to handle -- you don't have to keep coming
    back to your base and assigning workers to minerals as they're built.

    3. BUILDINGS CAN BE MULTI-SELECTED

    You can now select multiple buildings, or really any combination of
    buildings and units. If you have like-buildings selected and queue up
    multiple units, they will be logically built (e.g. if you have 5
    barrraks and start hitting "a" to build marines, then each barraks
    will start producing 1 marine before any of the barraks queues a 2nd.
    This makes later-game unit production much easier, since you can just
    group 12 barraks in one group and spam hitting "a" to make marines.

    4. CONTROL GROUPS ARE UNLIMITED

    You can now select more than 12 units in a single control group.
    Control groups are unlimited size. If different types of units or
    buildings are selected, tab can be used to select between like units.

    5. UNITS ON FOLLOW WILL RESPOND TO THREATS

    In SC1, if you had one unit follow another (e.g. select a marine,
    right-click on another marine), then the unit will not respond to
    threats. Thus, right-clicking on a lead unit was similar in threat
    behavior as doing a move (versus attack-move) command. In SC2, follow
    is generally treated as attack-move.

    6. MINIMAP TARGETTING FOR SPECIAL ABILITIES

    Most abilities work against the minimap now. This becomes
    particularly useful for abilities that target buildings, such as the
    queen's spawn larvae.

    * E.G. Select all your queens, click V, hold down SHIFT, and click on
    various points on the minimap where you have hatcheries. You can
    even click a few times in case you miss, since queens will not
    recast spawn larvae on a hatchery that already has spawning larvae.

    7. BUILDING RALLY POINTS CAN BE QUEUED

    In SC1, if you set the rally point of a barraks to some marine, and
    the marine died, then the rally point would be lost. In SC2, you can
    hold down shift and queue up rally points. One use would be to hold
    down shift and click on a bunch of marines in the same group; thus, if
    one marine died, then the rally point would then default to the next
    one.

    8. IDLE WORKERS ARE SHOWN

    If workers are not actively building, repairing, mining, etc., they
    are added to an idle worker count that is shown on your screen as an
    icon. You can select these workers in sequence by hitting F1 or
    clicking on the idle worker icon. Check this periodically; e.g. if
    gas or minerals run out, then workers on those resources will become
    idle. In particular, one thing to get used to is that your gas will
    run out, so you cannot just put workers on gas and leave them on
    indefinitely.

    9. HIT "S" BEFORE ISSUING NEW COMMANDS

    When in doubt, hit stop ("S) before ordering a unit to perform new
    actions, particularly spellcaster ("S" causes the unit to stop its
    current action and clear its action queue). Otherwise, smart casting
    may cause the unit to finish its previous command before casting the
    spell. For example, if you attack-move 3 high templar in a mixed
    group, then hold down shift, then cast psi storm 3 times, then your
    templar may first move to the attack-move spot before psi storming.
    If this sounds confusing, the easy rule to remember is that if a
    spellcaster (particularly once that does not have an attack) is in
    motion, before you cast a spell with it, hit "S".

    10. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TAKES RESOURCES AWAY IMMEDIATELY

    In SC1, you had to have enough resources to start building a buiding,
    but if your resources dropped below the building cost by the time your
    worker got to the spot, you wouldn't build. This could lead to
    critical issues such as noticing that you didn't in fact build that
    turret that you queued up in your base. In SC2, once you issue a
    build command, resources are taken away and reserved. Additionally,
    you can shift-queue to build multiple buildings either with one or
    multiple workers, so it's easy to get a couple of SCVs to build a
    bunch of turrets in succession using a single sequence of commands.

    11. SOME ABILITIES CAN BE SET TO AUTOCAST

    Some ability can be toggled to autocast, such that units will
    automatically use the ability when appropriate. In SC1, this was true
    for medics. In SC2, one of the primary uses is with SCVs. If you
    right-click on the repair icon, it will start flashing, and this will
    signify that the SCV will automatically repair any damaged unit or
    structure (including those belong to allies) if idle. Thus, an easy
    way to keep your mech army repaired is to select a few SCVs, activate
    repair on auto-cast, and right-click on any unit in your army.
    Carrier interceptors can also be set to autocast, which means that the
    carrier will automatically build new interceptors.



    ======================================================================
    V. RACES CH5
    ======================================================================

    The following are things that you should know about each race in order
    to play effectively. First, I will list a few things that you
    absolutely must know for each race, then after that I'll mention some
    other good-to-know techniques and tricks. Then I will also discuss
    each race's "super" unit (or "core" unit).


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VA. TERRAN CH5_A
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    VA1. THINGS YOU MUST KNOW ABOUT PLAYING TERRAN
    --------------------------------------------------

    1. BUILD AN ORBITAL COMMAND IMMEDIATELY AFTER YOUR BARRACKS IS DONE

    Command centers ("CC") no longer use add-ons (nuke silo, comsat).
    Instead, the CC upgrade converts the CC itself. There are two
    possible upgrades -- the orbital command ("OC") or planetary fortress
    ("PF"). You should pretty much always build an orbital command on
    your command center as soon as possible -- i.e. immediately after your
    first barraks is done since a barraks is a tech requirement for the
    orbital command.

    Getting your OC done as soon as possible is critical because of MULEs,
    which boost your economy. If after your barraks is done, your CC is
    building a SCV and is less than 50% done, cancel the SCV. There are
    very very rare circumstances where the OC is not the first thing you
    build in early game after your barraks finishes.

    2. USE THE OC MOSTLY FOR MULES, NOT SCAN

    The Orbital Command Center gives you access to 3 abilities, 1 of which
    is a lot more used than the other 2. The MULE calldown allows you to
    summon a temporary super SCV-like unit that mines faster than a normal
    SCV and can mine from the same patch as another SCV (the MULE doesn't
    interrupt the SCV's mining, or vice versa). The MULE will mine ~300
    minerals during its lifetime and the MULE duration is the same as the
    time it takes your CC to generate 50 energy, so you will always have
    enough energy in your CC to call down another MULE after the previous
    expires. 290 minerals within 30 seconds is a TON of resources.
    Therefore, unless you are really in a bind, do NOT use your Orbital
    Command to scan or to calldown supply. Essentially, a scan costs you
    290 minerals, so everytime you have to scan, your opponent will feel
    very happy.

    * The lack of usable scan is thus a big difference from SC1 where
    scanning was frequent. Instead, scout using floating buidings
    (e.g. build a barraks and fly it over your opponent's base).

    * Because OC gives you so much minerals through MULEing, you will
    generally want to favor building a OC over a Planetary Fortress
    ("PF") or expansions. Regardless of what you choose, you will
    always want to upgrade every CC to either a OC or PF immediately
    after it's built.

    * You can calldown a MULE straight onto a mineral patch by clicking on
    the MULE icon (or hitting "E") and then clicking on a mineral patch.
    The MULE will then immediately start mining when it finishes its
    summon animation.

    * Note that MULEs don't actually just give you more minerals; instead,
    they cause minerals to be mined faster. This means your first
    base's minerals will run out faster, which is why expanding early is
    important.

    * If you have several CCs in one control group, then you can calldown
    MULEs just using that single control group, and one of the CCs with
    enough energy will cast the MULE. (This is the same as how other
    spells work in SC2.)

    * You will rarely want to keep more than 50 energy in a CC. Whenever
    you have 50 energy, calldown another MULE. The only common
    exception is if you are deliberately saving energy for scan (for
    cloak detection or scouting); but, again, try to do without scan
    since MULEs are so good for resourcing.

    3. ENGINEERING BAYS HAVE STRUCTURE UPGRADES

    Ebays, in addition to upgrading infantry attacks, also can upgrade
    turret range, building structure armor, and bunker capacity. Turret
    range and structure armor are in particular very useful, and both
    research quickly. If you are expanding aggressively, then getting
    both upgrades will significantly increase the durability of your
    bases.


    VA2. THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT PLAYING TERRAN
    --------------------------------------------------

    1. PLANETARY FORTRESS USE

    In SC1, Toss's ability to throw down cannons to instantly guard an
    expansion was enviable since Terran could only build anti-air
    (turrets) or would need marines to fill bunkers. In SC2, Terrans have
    the best base defense in the game, being the planetary fortress
    ("PF"). This is an upgrade for the CC, just like Orbital Command,
    although you have to choose between them. As mentioned earlier, OC is
    amazing for income generation. PFs are equally amazing for base
    defense. The PF gun does a lot of damage, including splash, and is
    attached to the CC so it is difficult to take down. Since your PF is
    a command center, you will probably also have many SCVs mining nearby,
    so those can be sent to repair the PF as it's being attacked. PFs
    with a few turrets for anti-air can withstand just about anything,
    particularly if upgraded with range and building armor (from the
    engineering bay). The general rule is to build OCs on bases which you
    can reasonably protect, and PFs on bases where you need extra defense
    (such as gold expansions). You really do not want to build a ton of
    PFs due to how amazing OCs are for income generation.

    * E.G. A base with a PF can take out seemingly infinite numbers of
    zergling. Once the zergling attack, just select your SCVs, click on
    auto-repair, and click on the PF. The SCVs will surround the PF
    which means they can heal it quickly, and they'll keep the zergling
    out of melee range of the PF.

    2. BUNKERS CAN BE SALVAGED

    Although as a general rule you should not build a lot of static
    defense, Terran can get away with this because their bunkers can be
    salvaged for 100% return. Thus, you can build bunkers when needed and
    then just resell them afterward. This allows for some very effective
    defensive options because you don't have to worry about overcommitting
    to defense. Having said this, a bunker you build temporarily is still
    taking up resources until destroyed, so don't overdo bunkers.

    4. ADD-ONS CAN BE SWAPPED

    Each basic military production building can be augmented with either a
    tech lab or reactor. These add-ons can be swapped around by just
    lifting the buidings and placing them on the add-ons, just like in SC1
    with CC add-ons. The advantages of tech swap are twofold: (1) you can
    tech very quickly (2) you have additional flexibility in terms of
    strats.

    * E.G. It's typical to start with a barraks with a lab add-on; but
    later on, you can lift that barraks and replace it with a starport
    if you want to make banshees or ravens fast, instead of building the
    starport and then making a tech lab afterward. You could even lift
    your barraks, build a 2nd reactor while the starport is building,
    and then stick your barraks back on your first reactor.

    * E.G. In early game, you often will want to pump out hellions fast.
    It's typical to make a rax with a reactor, then make a factor, then
    swap the factory with the rax. Later on, after you're done with
    hellions, you can swap back, or even stick a starport onto the
    reactor to make fast vikings or medivacs.

    5. SCVs CAN AUTO-REPAIR

    SCVs can be set to auto-repair (right-click on their repair icon so
    that it animates), which means that they will find and repair any
    nearby units or buildings. This makes SCVs very valuable to take
    along on attacks of any composition because they can build bunkers (if
    you're using infantry), or repair vehicles/ships (if you're using
    mech/air). Generally, there is no reason not to have SCVs on
    auto-repair. MULEs can also be used for repair, and can be called
    down anywhere so you can use them to repair your fleet of BCs that's
    far away from home.

    6. MEDIVACS REPLACE MEDICS

    Unlike in SC1, you no longer have cheap healing in SC2. Instead, you
    have to build medivacs. These operate in much the same way (e.g. only
    one medivac can heal one unit at a time, it costs mana, and the
    healing rate is pretty fast). If you are going with bio ball
    (i.e. marine/marauder), it's pretty common to tech up to medivacs to
    support your army. Note that since medivacs are transports too, this
    allows you a lot of mobility and the threat of base drops.

    * E.G. Use medivacs to heal your marauder army, and then in a lull,
    load up the marauders and drop them into your opponent's mineral
    line. You'd be surprised how fast this will kill the workers, any
    static defense, and the town hall itself.

    7. TANKS DON'T OVERFIRE ANYMORE

    Sieged tanks have a long cooldown which can be exploited by baiting
    them with a single expendable unit. In SC1, you could send a zergling
    at 12 tanks and maybe all 12 would fire at the zergling, then you
    could send in the rest of your army and slaughter the tanks while
    they're waiting to fire again. In SC2, tanks will not overfire units;
    i.e. each unit will be hit by exactly the number of tank shots needed
    to kill it. This means that in the above scenario, only 1 tank would
    fire at the zergling. Tanks also do decent damage even in unsieged
    mode. Not surprisingly, these two facts make tanks one of the best
    units in the game.

    8. DEPOTS CAN BE LOWERED

    In SC1, if you walled off your choke and then had to get out, you
    would need to lift your barraks. In SC2, you can lower your depots,
    move your units out, then raise the depots. You may want to by
    default lower depots that are built inside your base that are not part
    of a wallin, since this will allow your units to get around easier.
    Raising or lowering doesn't affect depots' combat durability.

    9. USE "A" TO HAVE MEDIVACS FOLLOW-HEAL

    In SC1, if you wanted to have medics follow marines, you could just
    right-click the med on a marine. In SC2, if you right-click on a
    marine, the medivac will load it up. Instead, just hit "A" and click
    on the marine, as if you are ordering the medivac to attack it.


    VA3. SUPER UNIT - MARAUDER
    --------------------------------------------------

    The marauder is the Terran's super/basic/core unit. Marauders are
    good against just about everything on ground due to the fact that they
    hard counter armored units, slow almost all units upon attack, and
    have high health. Note that even though they are infantry, they are
    very durable and thus not vulnerable to a lot of anti-infantry
    counters; think of them more like zealots than marines in terms of
    their durability. Be sure to get both the concussive shells upgrade
    and stim. Use stim liberally because the health cost is not that
    great whereas the added effectiveness in both movement and attack
    speed is scary.

    * Marauders can go toe to toe against just about anything on the
    ground apart from units that deal area of effect damage. Forget
    about marines being the backbone of your army; in general, build
    marauders unless you need anti-air.

    * Since marauders deal extra damage against armored units, they are
    also great against buildings. Notably, they have enough health and
    damage output to be able to charge up to static defenses and destroy
    them with minimal losses.

    * Since marauders are high health, they are also easy to keep alive
    using medivacs. Medivac healing is nowhere near as effective as SC1
    med healing, but it is still very good.

    * Feel free to stim marauders liberally. Stim greatly increases their
    movement and damage up to pretty insane levels, and the health hit
    is not that significant. See for yourself how fast a group of
    stimmed marauders can take out a town hall.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VB. ZERG CH5_B
    ------------------------------------------------------------


    VB1. THINGS YOU MUST KNOW ABOUT PLAYING ZERG
    --------------------------------------------------

    1. BUILD A QUEEN IMMEDIATELY AFTER YOUR SPAWNING POOL IS DONE

    Queens are built straight from the hatchery ("hatch") and do not
    require larvae. You should almost always build a queen as soon as
    your spawning pool is done (since the spawning pool is a tech
    requirement for queens). There are very few circumstances where you
    would not build a queen immediately when your pool finishes. The
    reason you build a queen as early as possible is because queens enable
    the hatchery to generate additional larva, and larva is critical for
    economy and unit production.

    2. USE QUEENS FOR GENERATING LARVAE

    Queens fulfill a number of functions but are primarily used for their
    spawn larvae ability ("puke"), which causes the hatchery to spit out a
    set number of extra larva per application after some time. The time
    it takes for the larvae to be produced is the same as the time it
    takes the queen to regenerate the energy needed to puke, thus a hatch
    should always be generating larvae. Larva generation and diligent
    queen use is the key to Zerg play, since the number of larva dictates
    both how fast you can make drones or units.

    In SC1, Zerg had to build a number of hatches to produce enough larva,
    but in SC2 a queen is essentially equivalent to having another hatch.
    You thus do not need to build a second hatch as part of standard Zerg
    play, and there is rarely a reason to build a hatch in your base
    versus at an expansion.

    Note that the queen is a fairly effective anti-ground and anti-air
    unit, which means that in ZvZ, you should not leave your scouting
    overlord at your opponent's base or it'll get shot down. Queens are
    also decent against even mid-game air, although their long build time
    means you can't just pump out queens if you get caught off guard by
    air.

    3. OVERLORDS DO NOT DETECT CLOAKED BY DEFAULT

    Overlords ("OL"s) no longer detect cloaked units. They must be
    individually upgraded into Overseers; this becomes available at lair
    level and costs quite a bit of resources per OL. For this reason,
    cloaked attacks against Zerg are fairly effective, and teching early
    to lair is fairly common in order to get detection.

    4. NYDUS WORMS CAN BE PLACED ANYWHERE YOU HAVE SIGHT

    This is moreso a warning to other races versus a must-know for Zerg.
    Nydus operate differently in SC2 than SC1. You can now build a Nydus
    entrance at lair level (i.e. very early in the game), and once you
    have one, you can then build exits *anywhere you have sight* for a
    modest resource cost. Note that this includes anywhere your overlords
    or units can see; it does not have to be on creep! This opens up
    endless opportunities for backdooring into an opponent's base, since
    nydus worms build fairly quickly and there is no limit to the number
    of units you can cram in there. If your opponent destroys your exit,
    you can always just build another one somewhere else, it just costs
    you some resources for each exit.

    * The nydus behaves as a shared tunnel system (similar to GLA in
    Command&Conquer:Generals) where you can put units in at any Nydus
    and remove them from any other Nydus, versus in SC1 where each Nydus
    was paired.

    * Once the nydus exit finishes production, a sound notification is
    played that is heard by everyone (e.g. similar to how the nuclear
    missile launch notification is seen/heard by everyone).

    * Nydus exits have fairly low health, so if you are being nydus'd, try
    attacking the worm first to kill it and then take care of the units
    that have poured out, unless you know that you can handle the stream
    of units.

    * Because of the power and flexibility of nydus worms, OL drops are
    less common in SC2 than SC1. Unlike with OLs, units do not die if
    the Nydus is destroyed, and if an attack is failing then you can
    always retreat your units into the Nydus if it is still alive.

    * Nydus can hold an infinite number of units. You can even rally
    units from your hatches into your Nydus.

    5. HATCHERIES HAVE TWO RALLY POINTS

    Hatches now have two rally points - one for units, and one solely for
    drones. Right-click on a mineral patch to set the drone rally point.
    Then right-click anywhere else to set the unit rally point. Once you
    have multiple hatches, hotkey them all together in one control group
    and you can then select them and right-click anywhere to set a common
    unit rally point. This does not disturb their drone rally point so it
    is very useful.

    6. ZERG UNITS MOVE FASTER ON CREEP

    All Zerg units move faster on creep. Some, like queens, move
    significantly faster on creep. Spreading creep is pretty important,
    particularly spreading creep between bases for shared defense. Creep
    can be spread by creep tumors, or maintained by overlords at lair
    level.


    VB2. THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT PLAYING ZERG
    --------------------------------------------------

    1. YOU DON'T ALWAYS NEED A SECOND HATCHERY

    In SC1, you typically built a second hatch to have more larvae; since
    hatches can produce any unit, you could treat the 2nd hatch as a
    barraks or gateway that can also produce drones. Since you're
    building a 2nd hatch anyway, you might as well put it at an expansion
    if you can defend that expansion. Almost all maps have a ready
    easy-to-defend ("natural", as in "this is naturally the first place
    you would expand") expansion.

    In SC2, you can get away with just 1 hatch since a queen effectively
    doubles the hatch's larvae output. This allows for some interesting
    1-base fast-tech possibilities. Note though that this does not mean
    you shouldn't get a 2nd hatch. It is fairly common in most build
    orders to get a 2nd hatch at your expansion just in like SC1,
    particularly if you're going with a gas-heavy strat (e.g. mutas) since
    this gives you access to two more geysers. It is very rare to have
    multiple hatcheries in one base; just make sure you have a queen for
    each hatchery.

    2. SPREAD CREEP EVERYWHERE WITH OVERLORDS AND CREEP TUMORS

    Spreading creep is fairly essential to mobility and base defense,
    since units such as queens and zergling can more effectively chase
    down and engage enemy units if they are fighting on creep. Creep can
    be permanently created by queens via creep tumors -- tumors act like
    creep colonies from SC1 but can each plant an additional tumor,
    meaning that once one is down, you can continue to spread creep
    indefinitely. Although using queen energy for puking is generally
    queens' primary purpose, consider building a second queen to start
    creeping out, or just wait until your queen has enough energy both to
    puke and to creep (since inevitably you'll forget to puke all the
    time, so your queen will eventually have enough energy fro both).

    Creep tumors are invisible once they're done building. Your opponent
    will know that they're there because he'll see the creep of course,
    but he'll need detection to remove the tumor. Creep tumors also give
    sight, so you can see anything that's on your creep!

    Overlords can also generate creep at lair level and generally should
    be all toggled on to generate creep once your lair tech finishes since
    there is no drawback to doing so. Placing overlords in well traveled
    paths generating creep can help with Zerg mobility. You can even sit
    overlords at enemy expansions puking creep in order to prevent the
    opponent from building a town hall there.

    3. BE AWARE OF WHEN LARVAE IS ABOUT TO SPAWN

    Build overlords when larva is about to spawn. Unlike other races,
    which build units steadily (e.g. one zealot after another), Zerg
    builds units in spurts since larvae is produced in batches. If 4
    larva from the queen's puke are about to finish, then you should have
    at least 4 extra supply (and typically 8, since many Zerg units take 2
    supply) if you expect to use the larva immediately. Note that this
    doesn't account for additional larva that are spawned naturally from
    the hatchery.

    4. DON'T LET LARVA SIT AROUND UNUSED

    Once a hatchery accumulates 3 or more larva (cocoons, i.e. larva that
    is being used to build units, doesn't count towards this total), it
    stops producing any additional. This means that if your hatchery has
    3 larva, then it is wasting production ability because it is not
    generating any more. Try to plan to use larva steadily so that you
    never have 3 larva sitting around; this also means that when your
    queen's larva hatch, you will want to use at least all of those.

    5. DON'T OVERBUILD UNITS

    Zerg's economy is very tricky to get used to because larva can either
    be used to produce drones or units. This is unlike other races which
    can build workers at a steady, set rate. The decision of whether to
    make drones or units is a major deciding factor for winning games as
    Zerg. If you build too many drones, then you could be run over by an
    opponent due to lack of units. If you build too many units, then if
    you do not kill your opponent then you will be behind due to weaker
    economy and will probably lose.

    The general guiding principle for Zerg is to build just enough units
    that you need. If you are playing defensively (e.g. in the process of
    teching to mutas), your opponent attacks you with marines, and you
    make 12 zergling to fend off the attack and end up with 8 zergling
    remaining, then you should have built fewer zergling and built drones
    instead. In other words, even though you won the attack, you still
    made a poor economic choice.

    Much anti-Zerg strategy thus revolves around provoking Zerg to build
    more units than necessary. For example, someone may send an early
    marine to attack you, hoping you'll overreact and build 12 zergling
    instead of 2 to defend. Even a single early game mistake like this
    can cost you the game because you may never catch up in economy from
    not having those 5 drones. On the other hand, if your opponent leaves
    you alone and you are able to devote all your larva to drone
    production ("powering" your economy), then you will be significantly
    ahead.

    6. BANELINGS EXPLODE FOR DAMAGE EVEN IF KILLED

    In SC1, suicide units (e.g. scourge, spider mines) would explode
    harmlessly if they were killed before reaching their targets. In SC2,
    banelings will always explode (and do friendly splash) even if they
    are killed before reaching their targets. This means that you should
    generally not manually detonate banelings. In some cases, you may
    even want to move banelings towards opposing units instead of
    attack-moving.

    7. THE GENERAL STARTING BUILD ORDER IS OVERLORD ON 9 SUPPLY

    There has been a lot of testing around when to build your first
    overlord. Possibilities include OL on 10, OL on 9, OL on 10 followed
    by extractor trick, etc. Overlord on 9 supply is the best way to go
    economy-wise unless you are doing some sort of early pool or early gas
    strat.


    VB3. SUPER UNIT - ROACH
    --------------------------------------------------

    The roach is a short-ranged tank (i.e. high health) unit that does
    good damage, is fairly cheap, and has few ground-based counters.
    Roaches have replaced hydras from SC1 as the staple mass unit. They
    tear through just about everything, including static defenses, due to
    their high health, and are only easily countered by units that deal
    extra damage to armor, which is coincidentally the other races' super
    units (i.e. marauders and immortals). Since roaches have natural
    armor, they are also somewhat resistant to marines and zergling.
    Since they can be built very early in the game and easily massed due
    to queen larvae production, they make a scary early attack force.

    * Roaches continue to have effectiveness into late game since they
    make for good stock tank units in any unit combination. Their
    ability to move while burrowed can also lead to some interesting
    attack possibilities because they can bypass defenses, but they are
    more often just used straight up.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VC. PROTOSS CH5_C
    ------------------------------------------------------------


    VC1. THINGS YOU MUST KNOW ABOUT PLAYING PROTOSS
    --------------------------------------------------

    1. USE CHRONOBOOST

    Chronoboost is an ability cast from the Nexus -- for a small amount of
    energy, you can temporarily speed up unit or research production from
    any building. This is an amazingly useful and flexible ability for
    Protoss. It can be applied to any building and will speed up
    productin of whatever is going on in that building (e.g. unit
    production, research speed, etc.). For starters, chronoboost your
    Nexus during early game to produce probes faster; if you're doing this
    correctly, you should have more probes than Zerg has drones or Terran
    has SCVs through most of early game.

    Later on, you will want to save some energy in case you need to pump
    out gateway units faster or speed up researching key tech, but in
    general if you don't know what to do with chronoboost, use it on your
    Nexus as you pump probes.

    Various advanced tactics revolve around selective use of chronoboost.
    For example, you can chronoboost in order to tech faster
    (e.g. repeatedly chronoboost your warpgate research if you are doinga
    proxy rush, chronoboost your robotics facility to get your immortal or
    colossus out faster than usual).

    * E.G. In general, you should use your first chronoboost as soon as
    your first pylon is done. Chronoboost your Nexus to produce your
    next probe, and reapply chronoboost once it wears off. Repeat until
    you need to use chronoboost for some other use.

    2. USE WARPGATES

    Warpgates are a mode of the basic gateway that can produce units
    anywhere within a warp field. Units build much faster than if made
    from gateways.

    Gateways should be immediately converted to warpgates once that tech
    is researched, and warpgate tech is typically the first thing you
    research once your cybernetics core is finished (and you should
    typically chronoboost the research). Warpgates take a bit of getting
    used to, but their main advantage is that they allow you to build
    units significantly faster than if you were using normal gateways.
    There are three benfits all of which are very impactful:

    1. Warpgates have a fixed cooldown after building a unit, this
    cooldown is the same regardless of what unit you build and is shorter
    than the build time of a zealot.

    2. You can warp a unit into any area that is covered by a pylon field
    (or warp prism i.e. "shuttle" field). This gives tremendous
    flexibility because it doesn't matter where you build your warpgates,
    and you can do proxy attacks just by building a pylon near your
    opponent's base (versus in SC1 where you'd have to build your gateways
    near your opponent, meaning your gateways were vulnerable to being
    destroyed if your attack failed) or using a warp prism (the Protoss
    shuttle).

    3. Units warp in very quickly. If you build a unit from a gateway,
    you need to wait until the full unit build time before the unit
    becomes active. For warpgates, you just click on a location and the
    unit is build almost instantaneously, then the cooldown happens after
    the build. This allows for quick reinforcement ability. E.G. If you
    upgrade templar energy, this means that if you're being attacked, you
    can warp in a templar to immediately use storm.

    Learn to use warpgates, and learn to love them. In case you don't
    want to hotkey your warpgates, use the hardcoded "W" key to select all
    of them, and also note that you'll have an icon on the bottom right
    that shows how many warpgates are available (i.e. not on cooldown).
    You can even chronoboost your warpgates to shorten the cooldown. The
    only major drawback of warpgates is that you cannot queue units from
    them (since you have to manually place each unit), which makes them a
    bit harder to macro.


    VC2. THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT PLAYING PROTOSS
    --------------------------------------------------

    1. SHIELDS DON'T TAKE FULL DAMAGE

    Unlike in SC1, shields no longer take full damage. They take the same
    damage as the unit itself according to the unit's armor type. The
    only exception is immortals; this is explained in more detail below.

    2. SHIELDS RECHARGE QUICKLY OUTSIDE OF COMBAT

    Shields recharge MUCH faster than in SC1, but unlike in SC1, they do
    not continue to recharge during combat. This means that a unit's
    shields will not recharge unless the unit has not taken damage for
    some period of time. Thus, during battles it is often effective to
    back off a unit that has lost shields and wait a few seconds for the
    shields to start recharging (this is particularly important for
    Immortals since they only take 10 damage max per shot unless they are
    completely drained of shields).

    3. CARRIERS AND MOTHERSHIPS ARE NOT SUPER UNITS

    Carrier massing is no longer as large of a threat as in SC1.
    Interceptors in particular have become much easier to destroy
    (partially because they no longer instantly regenerate shields by
    passing through their parent carrier). (Remember, you can set
    interceptors to auto-build.)

    Related to this, motherships are not a super unit either to rush to.
    They are powerful in their own right but are not typically a
    game-ender despite their appearance as a hero unit.

    When starting out playing Protoss, avoid the temptation to tech rush
    to carriers or mothership. Protoss's standard low and mid-tech units
    are very powerful.

    4. USE COLOSSUS CORRECTLY

    SC2 no longer has reavers, but colossus fulfill a similar purpose in
    being highly mobile and countering blobs of fragile units
    (e.g. marines, zergling). Bear in mind a few things when using
    colossus:

    1. Colossus are so tall that they can be hit by anti-air. This
    includes air->air units such as vikings, as well as missile turrets.
    This makes them difficult to protect because they can be attacked by
    just about anything but can only counter ground.

    2. Colossus can walk up cliffs and bypass chokes. This gives them
    tremendous flexibility especially when attacking bases. Note though
    that if you attack-move a clump that includes colossus to a faraway
    location, the colossus will arrive first because they can take a
    straight path. They move somewhat like air units in this regard since
    they largely ignore terrain.

    3. Get the colossus range upgrade from the robotics support bay. This
    increases their range greatly and thus makes a huge difference in
    their effectiveness and ability to stay alive. Once you have a
    support bay, immediately get the colossus upgrade and chrono boost it
    while you build colossus.

    5. LEARN TO USE FORCEFIELD

    Forcefield ("FF") comes from an odd-looking new gateway unit, the
    sentry. FF use will win or lose you battles. They are generally
    indestructible, so they are extremely disruptive. Here are just a few
    common uses of FF:

    1. FF your ramp to prevent units from getting up your ramp. This is
    an easy way to hold off a rush. Alternatively, you can let a few
    attacking units up and then FF the ramp in order to split them from
    the rest, so that the ones you let up can be killed in isolation.

    2. FF in the path of melee units such as zergling and zealots to
    protect your ranged units. FF use with colossus is particularly
    effective since upgraded colossus have a massive range of 9, which
    means that even ranged units can be kept out of range.

    3. FF into groups of units to disrupt their formation. Casting FF
    into the middle of a ball of units will force the units aside.

    4. FF behind retreating units to cut them off. You can even cast
    multiple FFs around a pack of units to enclose them completely.


    VC3. SUPER UNIT - IMMORTAL
    --------------------------------------------------

    Immortals look somewhat like SC1 dragoons but are far different in
    terms of their use and limitations. The immortal is an effective
    anti-armor unit and base cracker. It has two properties that make it
    well suited for this: (1) when it has shields up, any attack that hits
    the shields will do a maximum of 10 damage (2) it gets a sizeable
    bonus when attacking armored units. The first property is in
    particular useful against units that do large packets of damage
    slowly; e.g. immortals can march up to siege tanks taking very little
    damage. Although immortals are compared to dragoons in SC1, there is
    very little similarity (stalkers are closer to dragoons in function).
    Immortals are used in almost every matchup although they typically
    require micromanagement so that they attack armored units and back off
    when their shields are depleted. Note that immortals do not attack
    air.



    ======================================================================
    VI. MULTIPLAYER EXECUTION CH6
    ======================================================================

    Now that you've learned about basic principles for multiplayer and
    race-specific properties, you may be wondering what the best way is to
    improve in multiplayer. This section details a path of self-learning
    that you can do on your own. Ideally, you'd find a friend to help
    teach you how to play, but if that's unavailable then the next best
    way is to adopt a strategy that allows you to learn from eaach game
    and thus improve even in the absence of feedback.

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VIA. THE BIG FIVE PATH OF LEARNING CH6_A
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    One of the best ways of learning multiplayer is to get someone to
    teach you. Or you can read tons of guides and watch video casts. Or
    you can just play and hope you get better with experience. The
    following presents an ordered way for self-learning; i.e. this should
    help you get better just through your own experiences. I am not
    saying this is the best way to learn, but since it is a self-help
    route, it has the fewest dependencies (e.g. does not require you to
    depend on another player teaching you or answering your questions).
    Follow these steps in order.

    1. START OFF WITH THE CAMPAIGN

    If you're completely new to SC and RTSs, start off playing at least a
    few missions in the campaign. This will help get your feet wet to the
    basics of the game. In particular, practice the Big Five in your
    campaigns; be particularly mindful of this because campaign play can
    be detrimental to multiplayer play because campaign play can encourage
    bad habits. For example, since the AI does not attack aggressively,
    it is common in campaign play to just have one barraks and build
    marines as you feel like it, then move out and crush the AI after
    you've built a sizeable force. This will get you killed in normal
    play. Thus, when playing campaign as a learning experience for
    multiplayer, you must follow the big five, otherwise skip the campaign
    and move onto the next step.

    2. PLAY SOME GAMES AGAINST THE AI

    You can skip this step if you want to jump right into the multiplayer
    fray, but if you're newer I suggest doing games against the
    A.I. because it is fairly predictable and thus pretty easy to learn
    off of. Practice the Big Five against the A.I. and when you get to
    the point where you can beat it comfortably, you should have a decent
    chance against human opponents. If you find yourself losing a lot,
    watch your replay, then play the reverse match where you try to
    emulate what the computer did. For example, if you play a PvT and
    lose because the comp beat you with marauders, then watch your replay,
    take note of the A.I.'s build order, and try it out yourself in a TvP
    to see how the comp handles it. Note that at higher difficulty
    levels, the AI cheats by awarding itself more resources, so don't play
    at such a high difficulty level that you need to resort to building
    lots of static defense or resorting to cheap exploits in order to win,
    since neither will help you against human opponents.

    3. PLAY AGAINST HUMANS, AND WATCH YOUR REPLAYS WHEN YOU LOSE

    When you're ready to start playing against humans, it's critical to
    watch your replays whenever you lose and see what your opponent did to
    beat you. Just as recommended against the A.I., you can then try
    copying your opponent's build order in your next game. This isn't a
    failsafe way to improve since your opponents are fallible too so
    perhaps you'll learn some bad habits from copying them, but the key is
    that they are at least better than you are currently because they beat
    you, and thus if you master what they're doing then you will at least
    be doing better than you are currently.

    Note that to master this step, you really want to be losing games.
    Winning games against a human is less of a learning experience since
    you only have a vague sense that you won, and might get the wrong idea
    ("I rushed to battlecruisers and won, this must be a solid tactic"
    versus "I only won by building battlecruisers because my opponent
    sucked so badly that he couldn't defend it."). So, when you lose,
    look on the bright side -- now you have a replay to watch and learn
    from.

    4. DO NOT ADOPT GIMMICK TACTICS

    When learning, it may be tempting to just adopt cheap gimmick tactics
    ("cheese") to beat opponents since those will easily elevate your
    standing. A simple example is playing Zerg and building an early pool
    ("6-pool") for an all-in zergling rush; this is a lot easier to
    execute than it is to defend against, so you can beat a lot of players
    who are more skilled than you.

    While using gimmick tactics has good short term reward, it will not
    help you become a better SC2 player overall, as most gimmick tactics
    violate the basics of the Big Five. And eventually, you will get to
    the point where your tactic no longer works so you'll have to throw it
    away and start over again with the next gimmick. Instead, try to
    adopt a solid flexible strategy.

    5. PLAY WITH AN ALLY

    2v2's can be a good learning experience because many of the basic
    build orders and strategies are the same as in 1v1, but you have a
    partner who can give you feedback and direction during the game.
    Finding a partner who's willing to help you out may be difficult, but
    I suggest just playing random 2v2's and then friending your partner
    and asking for some followup games if you do well.

    When playing with an ally, be honest that you're a newer player and
    your ally will likely be more patient. If you don't tell your ally
    that you're new, he may flame you for making basic mistakes;
    mentioning at the outset that you suck will instead hopefully put your
    ally in a teaching mode.



    ======================================================================
    VII. SPECIFIC MULTIPLAYER TIPS CH7
    ======================================================================

    The following are specific hints and rules that may help you when
    getting into multiplayer. These are less about basic principle and
    more about gotchas and things to be aware of when playing multiplayer.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VIIA. GENERAL CH7A
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    1. USE LOW RES SETTINGS

    SC2 has greatly improved graphics over SC1; this makes it a more
    visually appealing game but the graphics don't necessarily make the
    game easier to play. Specifically, a lot of the graphics effects are
    distracting or may even make it difficult to tell units apart.
    Running on low graphics setting will make your game look like SC1, but
    your units will be more distinct and you will maximize performance and
    framerate on your computer.

    2. BE A GOOD SPORT

    This may seem out of place in a strategy guide but it's a good
    principle to keep in mind for your own sanity, so here goes.

    Some of even the best players in SC2 are notorious for being poor
    sports ("bad manner") when they lose. Particularly as you're
    learning, it's always a good practice to be well behaved ("good
    manner"). If someone creams you, ask them for tips. If the game is
    really close, it's a perfect opportunity to ask if you can rematch or
    your opponent wants to partner up for some 2v2's. At the very least,
    start each game with "GL HF" ("Good luck, Have Fun") or respond
    likewise if your opponent does the same, and before leaving say "GG"
    ("Good Game") or "WP" ("Well Played"). Try not to lose your cool, or
    it'll just aggravate you for no reason and possibly make you so angry
    (go on "tilt") that you can't concentrate the next game.

    Also be sure to be a good sport even if your opponent or partner
    starts to flame you. Remember that the internet is full of people of
    all ages and dispositions. Do not hold online players to the same
    standards as your real life friends; if you're an adult, in
    particular, note that many online players may be half your age. In
    real life, if someone half your age comes up to you and insults you,
    you would probably not respond in kind or to the same level of
    immaturity. Bear in mind the same when online. Do not let others'
    poor behavior ruin your own experience and enjoyment.

    3. PLAY OFF-THE-RECORD GAMES TO IMPROVE

    If you're worried about your record, play custom or FFA games, which
    are unranked. These will allow you to practice strategies without the
    pressure of a loss affecting your rating. That said, don't get too
    comfortable with FFAs, because the types of tactics plus the
    randomness of FFAs can make them an unreliable measure of actual good
    gameplay.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VIIB. MAP FEATURES CH7_B
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    1. CONTROL THE XEL-NAGA TOWERS

    Towers give fairly large sight range and are generally near
    well-traveled areas. You will generally want to try to control the
    towers. As Zerg, this is trivial since you have cheap zerglings that
    you can send to the towers. With other races, use a worker or marine.
    Bear in mind that air units do not control towers, so you will need to
    use a ground unit.

    2. WATCH FOR CLIFFS AT EXPANSIONS

    You cannot hit uphill units if you do not have uphill sighting
    (e.g. an air unit/building or a ground unit that's on high elevation).
    If you expand in early game to somewhere that has a cliff (e.g. some
    natural expansions are flush against cliffs), be sure that you will
    soon have uphill sight. Beware that even certain early game units can
    get up a cliff (i.e. reapers).

    3. WATCH FOR BRUSH AREAS IN YOUR BASE

    Some maps have small brush areas around the corners of your base. You
    won't be able to see what's on the other side of these, so they are
    easily exploited for proxy pylons or other sorts of in-base tactics.
    At earliest convenience, build a structure or place a unit in that
    area to maintain vision on it.

    4. WATCH FOR DESTRUCTIBLE ROCKS IN YOUR BASE

    Some maps have destructible rocks in your base which open up an
    additional entrance point if destroyed. Rocks cannot be repaired, so
    your opponent can whittle them down gradually or all at once. Place
    units or structures near the rocks so you can spot when your opponent
    is trying to break in through them.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VIIC. DEALING WITH RUSHES CH7_C
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Attacking early ("rushing") was the bane of novice players in SC1.
    War3 (and other RTSs) compensated for this somewhat by having
    structures be useful for defensive purposes (e.g. your nightelf
    barraks in War3 has an attack). SC2 allows for the same rushing
    opportunities as SC1; these fall broadly into the category of normal
    early attacks ("rushes") and all-in attacks ("cheese"). Although
    losing to rushing and cheese can be fairly frustrating, learning how
    to deal with either (or do them yourself as appropriate) will
    ultimately make you a better player.

    1. NORMAL RUSHES

    Normal rushes should be defensible. If someone makes marines through
    a standard build and sends them to attack, then if you are teching to
    battlecruisers without defense then you should lose; this is basic
    common sense strategy. To defend against normal rushes, scout your
    opponent frequently and be sure that your unit count is similar to
    his. If you have many more units than him, then attack and win. This
    mechanism keeps players honest, because jumping tech in early game
    *should* be a risk otherwise all games would just be battlecruisers
    and carriers and boringness.

    Rushes also give you the opportunity to end the game as early as
    possible; e.g. if you are playing against an opponent who is just not
    building any units, then you should be able to attack early and finish
    the game and get onto your next opponent versus waiting 30 minutes to
    kill him later.

    2. ALL-IN RUSHES

    All-in rushes (6-pool, offensive cannons, proxy barraks, you name
    it...), i.e. "cheese" attacks, are of the sort where if it doesn't
    succeed, then generally the cheeser will lose. These are high-risk,
    high-reward attacks. They are tough for newer players to get used to
    because they are much harder to defend than to execute, and thus are
    commonly considered "cheap".

    There's no real advice I can give off the bat except that when you
    lose to a rush, watch your replay so you figure out what your opponent
    did, and then adjust your scouting so you can see them coming. For
    example, if you scout your Protoss opponent and don't see a gateway
    building near his pylon, then he is either really bad, or he's built a
    pylon and gateway somewhere near your base.

    As a general rule, learn how to defend against cheese but resist the
    temptation to rely on cheese to win. Cheese are named as such because
    they require doing something out of the ordinary and sacrificial in
    order to secure an easy win. It is far better in the long run to
    learn standard playing mechanics.


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    VIID. ALLIED GAMES CH7_D
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    This section covers the basics of how to play as a team. SC2 makes
    many improvements and changes in relation to SC1 in order to make team
    play more seamless and interesting.

    1. RESOURCES CAN BE SHARED

    Past a certain time in the game, resources can be freely shared
    without penalty. You can send any amount of minerals or gas to your
    partner instantly. This allows for some rather aggressive strategies,
    such as having one partner just focus on economy and then feed his
    partner who builds the military units. If in a team game you get hit
    by an impossibly large tech rush (e.g. a dozen mutas a few minutes
    into the game), then it is likely that your opponents shared
    resources.

    2. CONTROL CAN BE SHARED

    You can share control with any of your allies, such that they can
    build and control your units (although they can't build structures).
    This can create some advantageous situations since coordinating team
    attacks in SC1 can be difficult when all players are separately
    controlling parts of an army that is trying to attack all at once.

    * E.G. As Terran, I'll give my Zerg partner shared control so he can
    take a couple of medivacs with his group of mutas, or use scan to
    place a nydus worm.

    3. IT'S NOT ALL OVER IF YOUR TEAMMATE DROPS

    If a teammate drops or leaves the game, any ally can fully control
    him, including building units and structures. The teammate no longer
    has his own resource pool, though; instead, (1) all resources he
    gathers are split amongst allies (2) allies who build using the
    teammate's units/buildings use their own resources. In a 2v2
    situation, this is fairly uncomplicated, in that if your teammate
    drops then you simply control both you and him with your total shared
    resources. In a 4v4 situation, though, your teammate's resources will
    be equally split amongst the other 3 of you although you will pay full
    cost for building him. This presents some interesting and possibly
    advantageous situations.

    4. DON'T QUIT JUST BECAUSE YOU GOT WIPED OUT

    Don't quit early (i.e. "rage quit") just because you got wiped out.
    In many circumstances, your partner can still come back and win. You
    can still be helpful by having him share control so that you can
    essentially play through his units. And of course, give him all your
    resources.

    5. YOU CAN REPAIR/HEAL EACH OTHER'S UNITS

    SCVs can repair both Terran and Protoss mechanical units. Medivacs
    can heal Terran, Zerg, and Protoss organic units. This makes for some
    interesting strategies since ordinarily Toss units can never heal
    non-shield damage. As a Terran player, you could even calldown MULEs
    to heal your Toss partner's void rays in the middle of a battle. Or
    right-click a medivac on your Zerg partner's mutalisks so that your
    medivac follows and heals the mutas. Or select a group of SCVs, turn
    on auto-repair, and right-click on a colossus so that the SCVs follow
    the colossus and heal it and neighboring units.

    6. CHAT DEFAULTS TO ALLY CHAT

    You do not have to explicitly go on allied chat. Anything you type
    into chat will be displayed only to allies, and you will have to use
    SHIFT to send a message to everyone. Communicate frequently and at
    least give your partner an indication of what you're building,
    e.g. "going marauders to start." Of course, if you have voice, use
    it!

    7. USE MINI-MAP PINGS

    You can ping the minimap, which will show the location prominently for
    you and your allies. Use this to coordinate rally points, attacks,
    scan targets, etc. For example, if I see opponents coming towards my
    base, I'll often ping right on top of them so my ally sees too.

    8. GET USED TO CHEAP LOSSES, BUT DON'T COPY THEM

    If you think 1v1's are full of cheese, just wait until you get into
    2v2's. Certain combinations on certain maps are extraordinarily
    difficult to counter, as these generally involve both opponents doing
    an economy-sacrificing build to hit one partner early and take him
    out. These are depressing and cheap to lose to, but good scouting,
    conservative builds, and lots of skill will help you be able to defeat
    these. Many 2v2 teams that do cheese builds aren't actually very good
    and thus will fall apart if you survive their initial attack. As
    always, try not to adopt cheese builds. A simple 9rax proxy reaper +
    9pool will probably get you all the way up to diamond so sure it's
    nice if you want good stats to show off, but it's not goind to teach
    you to be a better player in the long run.



    ======================================================================
    VIII. RESOURCES CH8
    ======================================================================

    In the days of SC1, there were fewer definitive guides and communities
    around understanding and teaching the game. Youtube didn't even exist
    back then! SC2 is a whole different matter given the larger player
    base, more established pro game scene, and large beta community. I
    have done my best in this guide to present basics in a comprehensive
    fashion, but there are numerous other resources out there for
    bettering your gameplay. I will list just a few of the more
    accredited ones here.

    1. DAY[9] DAILIES
    http://day9tv.blip.tv/
    These are videocasts from Day[9], a top SC player. These videocasts
    typically go through top-level replays and are full of useful
    commentary. Day[9]'s videocasts are widely referenced and discussed
    in the SC community.

    2. TEAM LIQUID
    http://www.teamliquid.net/forum/index.php?show_part=34
    This website and associated forums is populated by top SC players.
    There is a wealth of information here from discussions and replay
    archives. The forums are high quality because the moderators maintain
    high standards for posting and etiquette. Please read through the
    posting guidelines carefully before participating in discussion or
    starting your own threads!

    3. HDSTARCRAFT'S CHANNEL
    http://www.youtube.com/user/HDstarcraft#p/u/2/ZJfkBg0aPZ8
    This youtube collection contains replays/commentary of top-level players.


    ======================================================================
    IX. BONUS: ORDAN ACHIEVEMENT CH9
    ======================================================================

    This has nothing to do with multiplayer strategy, but I'll throw it in
    here just as a bonus for your getting this far through the guide. You
    can unlock a certain portrait by beating 7 insane comps in a FFA.
    This is ordinarily a bit challenging because insane comps get a
    resource bonus and thus it's difficult to prevent yourself from
    getting overwheled. Of course, there are tricks you can use, making
    this a fairly easy achievement for either Terran or Protoss.

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IXA. SETUP CH9_A
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    * Create a custom game on the map "Extinction".
    * Set your own race to "Protoss".
    * Add 7 AIs.
    * Set all AIs to "Zerg".
    * Set difficulty for all AIs to "insane".
    * Don't touch handicaps (i.e. leave them at "100%").
    * Set game type to "FFA".

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    IXB. PLAY CH9_B
    ------------------------------------------------------------

    The general idea is to secure both island expansions on the map, wait
    for the computers to kill each other off, and then cleanup the
    remaining computers using a large unstoppable fleet. Specifically,
    the comp has never been good at handling large fleets of carriers
    (even if this changes in some later patch, the primary strategy of
    taking islands then building up a large fleet should still stay
    valid).

    1. BUILD ORDER

    You will eventually lose your main base, but you'll want to keep it
    alive as long as possible so that you can harvest resources. This is
    easiest to do if your starting location is one of the 4 spots that's
    closest to one of the islands, so if you're having trouble then
    restart until you get one of those spots (yes, it is a pain to setup
    the game each time from start).

    The build order I use is gateway, assimilator, forge, 3 cannons,
    cybernetics core, assimilator, robotics. Build pylons and nonstop
    probes during this, using chronoboost just on your probe production.
    Put 3 probes on each gas.

    * Once my forge is done, I'll put down 3-4 cannons immediately and
    stop production (e.g. workers and other structures) to save up money
    for them. I'll continue making a few cannons as money allows
    afterward, towards a total of 6-8 but no more than that.

    * Once my cybernetics core is done, I'll make non-chronoboosted
    sentries from my gateway and rally my sentries inside my mineral
    line.

    * Once my robotics is done, I'll make a warp prism, and then
    non-chronoboosted immortals.

    2. BUILDING PLACEMENT

    Place your buildings around your Nexus so that you enclose your probes
    and compact your base as much as possible (this is called "simcity").
    Generally, build your normal buildings and pylons on the outside (i.e. leaving
    two squares, i.e. enough room for a pylon, between your gateway and your
    Nexus), then put your cannons flush against the Nexus. This way, melee
    units will have to walk through or around my buildings to attack my cannons.
    A typical setup may look like this:

    A M
    P M
    PCNN M
    FFCNN M
    FFCCCC M
    PGGOOA
    GGOO

    if I'm expecting attacks to come from the bottom left. C=cannons,
    N=nexus, O=cybernetics core, G=gateway, F=forge, M=minerals,
    A=assimilator, P=pylon. Note how my cannons are sandwiched between
    buidings such that they are generally flush on all sides whenever
    possible.

    3. MAIN BASE DEFENSE

    The cannons are capable of stopping any early-game attack.
    Generally, roaches and zergling will start being thrown at you pretty
    quickly, often from your 2 adjacent opponents at the same time. As
    long as my 3-4 cannons are up and well-placed, I can hold off these
    attacks with no problem.

    The sentries are there to help against the larger attacks, mostly by
    using forcefield to keep roaches and zergling away from my cannons and
    away from getting into my mineral line. You don't need sentries (you
    could just build more cannons) but they are fun to use in this
    situation.

    Later on, I make immortals for stronger anti-roach, since immortals
    destroy roaches.

    Once your warp prism is done, your main base is expendable. Do not
    continue to spend money on your main (i.e. cut probe, unit, and cannon
    production) because you will want to start saving money for your
    carrier fleet. It's not a good idea to try to spend more resources
    keeping your main alive because the waves of attacks will start getting
    ludicrously huge (remember, the comp on insane difficulty gets a
    resource bonus) so it's very difficult to defend your base and you
    really don't need to since by this time you shouldn't have much
    resources left to mine there anyway.

    4. TRANSITION TO ISLAND BASES

    Once your warp prism is done, load 2 probes into it, and send it to
    each island. Be sure not to fly over other mains because queens will
    shoot down your prism. Your first island should be easy to get to,
    particularly if your start was adjacent to it. For the far-away
    island on the other side of the map, have your prism move flush
    against the sides of the map; e.g. if I started bottom left then I'll
    move my prism due south until it hits the bottom of the map, then east
    until it hits the bottom right corner, then north to get to the
    expansion.

    Unload a probe at each island, build a Nexus, and then some pylons.
    Make sure the pylons cover the edges of your island so you can place
    cannons against the edges. Build a forge at one island (since the
    forge at your main will be destroyed soon) and then a couple of
    stargates and a fleet beacon. As soon as your initial pylons are
    done, build as many cannons as you can afford along the edges of your
    base (you'll need these to prevent units from dropping into your
    base). You'll also want to build a cybernetics core because the
    one at your main base will be destroyed soon, and you need the core
    for air upgrades.

    5. BUILDING YOUR FLEET

    Once your island expansions are up, your main concern is to make sure
    that the comps do not use overlords to drop units into your expansion.
    Having around 6-8 cannons in each expansion is more than enough. The
    comp will generally just build lots of roaches and hydras because it
    is not smart enough to know that it needs air to break into your
    island. It's o.k. to build more than 8 cannons if you need to, just
    be sure not to overdo it because your islands have limited space and
    you have somewhat limited money to work with (you shouldn't run out of
    resources unless you go crazy though, so don't sweat it).

    Build up your carrier fleet and be sure to get all upgrades (air wpns,
    air armor, shields). Also get a mothership as soon as possible since
    the cloaking will protect your cannons. Typically, I will just build
    my air fleet from one island, and have the other island be pure
    cannons and pylons.

    6. CLEANING UP

    You really shouldn't have any problems here on out. Once you reach
    roughly 200 supply worth of carriers + mothership, attack-move your
    fleet out and you should cleanup the remaining computers (typically
    there are 2 left max) with no problem. Be sure to have interceptors on
    auto-build. If you do start running low on resources, use your
    mothership to recall some probes from an island onto an expansion spot
    and then have those probes build a Nexus (or use your prism to
    transport probes). You may also want to split up your carrier force
    since the comps have a tendency to try to build or rebuild all over
    the map as you're destroying one base after another.

    That's it! Once you've eliminated all the comps, you'll get a ton of
    achievements and the Orlan portait will be unlocked. Right-click on
    your portrait, select "Change portrait", select the Orlan portrait,
    and gloat to your friends.
     
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